Name: Nathalia Ribeiro Bignotto
Type: MSc dissertation
Publication date: 01/04/2020
Advisor:

Namesort descending Role
Gilberto Fonseca Barroso Advisor *

Examining board:

Namesort descending Role
Fabian Sá Internal Examiner *
FRANCISCO JOSE DE PAULA FILHO External Examiner *
Gilberto Fonseca Barroso Advisor *

Summary: Estuarine systems experience several pressures from coastal zone accelerated and unplanned occupation. Thereby, coastal lagoons show great vulnerability to environmental impacts, mainly, artificial eutrophication, which results in the loss of ecological integrity in response to exacerbated nutrient inputs. The Jacaraípe river basin – BHRJ is composed by two subbasins, the Juara lagoon basin – BHLJU, and the Jacuném lagoon basin – BHLJA is located in the southeastern coast of Brazil (Serra, ES) and is subject to high nutrient inputs from watershed natural and anthropogenic sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of BHRJ estuarine eutrophication using nutrient (N and P) emissions factors approach, distinguishing natural sources, such as atmospheric inputs and soil denudation, and anthropogenic sources, such as urban runoff, wastewater, municipal solid waste, agriculture, and livestock farming. Validation of estimated emissions were done with nutrient flows computed with Water Quality Monitoring Program data and estimated mean fluvial discharges, as well lagoons trophic state indexes (TSIBurns and TSILamp). The estimated emission loads for the BHRJ were 412.12 t.N.year-1 and 102.32 t.P.year1 . Anthropogenic sources contribute with 92.58 and 97.71% for N and P, respectively, with wastewater as the major source with to 57.69 of N and 67.36% of P emissions. The BLJU accounts with most contributions of N and P, 64.61 and 63.90%, respectively. However, when standardized by area, the BHLJA (4.27 e 1.09 t.km-2 .year1 of N and P, respectively) exceeded the values of BHLJU (1.64 e 0.40 t.km-2 .year-1 of N and P, respectively), representing 72.42 and 72.97% of the BHRJ yields of N and P. Compared to global average the BHRJ is a hotspot of nutrients productivity. Juara and Jacuném lagoons showed hipereutrophic states, both for the TSIBurns and for TSILamp. The eutrophication process requires control measures, for both nutrients, N and P, at lagoons and watersheds levels. Controlling measures aiming to control, mitigate, and monitoring nutrients inputs to the BHRJ such as tertiary sewage treatment, best livestock management practices, riparian forest regreening, building up new sewage 6 treatment plants, and expansion of water quality monitoring stations, besides environmental education, were proposed.

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