Name: Samantha Chisté de Araújo
Type: MSc dissertation
Publication date: 09/03/2020
Advisor:

Namesort descending Role
Camilah Antunes Zappes Advisor *

Examining board:

Namesort descending Role
Agnaldo Silva Martins Internal Alternate *
Ana Paula Cazerta Farro Internal Examiner *
Camilah Antunes Zappes Advisor *
Salvatore Siciliano External Examiner *

Summary: The Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small endangered cetacean off the South American coastline due to accidental catch by gillnets used in fishing. Information regarding the species and the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of artisanal fishermen in the states of Espírito Santo (ES) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ) in southeastern Brazil; and the state of Paraná (PR) in southern Brazil are scarce. In the National Plan of Action for the Conservation of Small Cetacean - Franciscana - Pontoporia blainvillei 2010, is emphasized the urgent need to obtain data on the LEK for these areas. Information related to conservation obtained by LEK to assist fishing communities in developing activities for fisheries management, as local actors know the whole environment because of its empiricism. In this sense, the aim of this study is to describe, evaluate and compare the state of knowledge of fishermen of south andsoutheast coasts of Brazil in relation to interactions between fishing and the Franciscana dolphin, possible threats to the populations of the species and areas of overlap between artisanal fisheries and populations of the species in the studied areas. The selected areas surrounding the northern state of ES [communities of Conceição da Barra (18º35'S; 39º43'O); the Regência district (19º38'S-39º38'O), Municipality of Linhares; and Barra do Riacho district (19º49'S-40º16'O), municipality of Aracruz]; southern state of ES in the municipalities of Piúma (20º50'S-40º43'O) and Anchieta (20º48'S-40º38'O); northern state of RJ, in the community of Atafona, municipality of São João da Barra (21º37'S - 40º59'O); state of Paraná in the communities of the Ilha das Peças (25º27'S-48º20'O) and Ilha de Superagui (25º28'S-48º13'O), municipality of Guaraqueçaba. To obtain the data from the ethnographic methods were used participant and direct observations; field diary; and interview with the use of ethnographic questionnaire and visual ethnography via illustrative and map board to indicate fishing routes, areas of accidental capture and occurrence areas of Franciscana dolphin. For the analysis we used the discourse analysis, triangulation, descriptive statistics and basic Boolean / classical logic to identify fishermen that recognize the franciscana dolphin as the species P. blainvillei. Recognition of species by fishermen occurred by the criteria: 1) color body; 2) Dissertação De Mestrado Samanta Chisté de Araujo occurrence area; 3) size body and 4) correct identification of the species of the photo on the board, all in accordance with the literature information. Among the respondents who identified the franciscana dolphin as belonging to the species P. blainvillei (n = 95), 23 (25.5%) were ES north; 1 (1 6%) Southern ES (Anchieta); 20 (66.6%) Northern RJ and 51 (56.6%) of PR. Among the 235 fishermen who do not correctly identify the species, 120 act in the franciscana distribution gap. The fishing described positive interactions (n = 15), negative (n = 8) and neutral (n = 2) involving the franciscana dolphin. When asked specifically about bycatch, 87.4% (n = 83) reported the occurrence of fishing [ES north (n = 23), South ES (n = 1), Northern RJ (n = 20) and PR (n = 39)], and gillnet was cited as responsible by bycatch. Regarding the areas of occurrence indicated by the fishermen, they coincide with those described in the 'National Action Plan for the Conservation of franciscana', an official document of the Brazilian Government and scientific literature. From the understanding of local knowledge of the communities studied, defined the status of need the organization of educational activities related to fishery impacts on species P. blainvillei. The recognition of this status may minimize the effects of catches, or at least allow regular evaluation of the mortality rate of the species through such catches. Although few fishermen recognize the franciscana dolphin, the identification of occurrence areas of species, interactions with fishing and bycatch indicate LEK as tools to complement data on dolphin populations in the studied areas.

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